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Monday, April 18

ELT Curriculum & Instructional Development (Defenition, standard, and Lesson Plan)

1.      Two definitions of curriculum from the experts:
·Ralph Tyler (1935): curriculum are all learning experiences planned and directed by the school to achieve educational goals
·Hilda Taba (1962): curriculum is a statement of educational objectives: general and specific, and the material is selected and organized based on a particular pattern for the sake of learning and teaching.

From both of the experts, we can conclude that the definition of ELT Curriculum based on reference to the experts is all learning experiences planned of education and directed by school, which is general and specific; and the material is selected and organized on particular pattern for the sake of learning and teaching to achieve educational goals, for this case in English learning and Teaching process.

2.      A Competence Standard is an academic, medical or other standard used by an education provider to determine whether a person has a particular level of competence or ability. Competence standards apply to individual courses and specifically to the criteria used on entry to a course, for the assessment of students and for work placements. They can be set by professional or qualification bodies or by higher education institutions (HEIs) through staff with particular responsibility for assessment, admissions, courses etc.
For example, the students can identify each tense and can retell the story that happened in the past by using past tense form.

Basic competence is defined as the capacity to respond to complex demands and carry out diverse duties successfully. It involves a combination of practical skills, knowledge, motivations, ethic values, attitudes, emotions and other social components that work jointly in order to achieve an effective action.
For example, in Mathematical competence that uses numbers and the basic operations, symbols and forms of expression and mathematical reasoning in order to produce and interpret information, know more about quantitative and spatial aspects of reality and solve problems related to daily life and the world of professional work.

3.      Evaluation can be regarded as one of the curriculum component that stand to identify level of education purposes attaining where this purposes are made for gaining through the certain curriculum. Moreover, curriculum evaluation is made to identify the whole of curriculum work. The indicator work that evaluated not only takes place on the effectiveness but also on the program efficiency. So, by using this evaluation, we can see the growth and progress of our students in reaching the goals of curriculum itself.

4.      Cognitive skills are the basic mental abilities we use to think, study, and learn. They include a wide variety of mental processes used to analyze sounds and images, recall information from memory, make associations between different pieces of information, and maintain concentration on particular tasks. They can be individually identified and measured. Cognitive skill strength and efficiency correlates directly with students' ease of learning.
For example, the students can distinguish between gerund and present participle and give examples for each term; they can also finish the question about it well.

5.      Lesson plan for one meeting:
Subject            : Basic Grammar
Grade              : 1st semester
Topic               : Past Tense
Content           : Understanding the use of past tense and write the story that happened in        ..the past
Goals
Students can use Past tense in both written and oral communication
Objectives
Give the student several ideas of story and ask them to retell and write it in past tense.
Materials
Understanding and Using English Grammar
Introduction
            By telling a story in past tense form, I will ask my student to tell a story in past tense as well  
Development
Student can improve their ability in tenses and can retell a story that happen in the past easily
Practice
Students write about their holiday in past tense form
Accommodation
Student can read about verb tenses in the book
Checking for understanding
Student will cross their own work to their friends and make several corrections for their friends work by using the dictionary that contain both regular and irregular verb
Closure
Review some story and notice some errors and give the right one 

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